Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Egg regulations and things to think about

“Noise proves nothing. Often a hen who has merely laid an egg cackles as if she laid an asteroid.”
Mark Twain, American Humourist 1835-1910

Now that spring is here, Easter is just around the corner and eggs are a hot item on the farm stands. For eating or colouring, with the surge in egg sales come the annual public service announcements about safe food handling with eggs. So a few years ago it came as a bit of a surprise to hear about two initiatives that make farm fresh eggs even easier to get in the morning. In Vancouver , the city council approved backyard hens for city dwellers. And on Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA) announced a policy to allow ungraded eggs to be sold to retail outlets and restaurants. As a poultry scientist by training – a very rare profession these days – I was amused, dismayed and quite pleased – all at the same time. I was personally pleased to see so many people interested in keeping chickens and having access to local eggs.
I was amused because the Vancouver city council was told by their local food policy group that hens would not create noise or be a nuisance. Roosters are known to be noisy, so of course they are banned. But roosters aren’t the only noisy ones; anyone who owns even just a few chickens know how just down right noisy chickens can be, especially at the point when the egg comes out. They can completely denude a lawn in no time, dig up your favourite bulbs, and rearrange your tool shed as they look for a new spot to lay. And chickens are nibblers by nature. They eat constantly, and poop constantly as a result. Now, historically backyard chickens were common. They represented an easy to keep food source that would glean loose grain, forage and happily eat food scraps and bugs. At one point the country in the city thing was outlawed, and if it isn’t handled properly it could be outlawed again. It is popular by a variety of urbanites in both the US and Canada, and a humorous documentary, “Mad City Chickens”, is about folks who happily embrace backyard chicken rearing. It should be noted that both the SPCA and the Humane Society voiced their concerns about the backyard rearing of chickens on humane grounds, and since I occasionally see the abandonment of unwanted chickens (as was the group of bantam roosters dropped off at the Nu-To-You a couple of years ago) I have concerns as well. Those with romantic notions may soon change their minds, since chickens are a responsibility like any animal.
As for the VIHA policy change on ungraded eggs, I was surprised at the complete turnaround by VIHA. So was the BC Centre of Disease Control, who was not consulted before the news was announced. The BCCDC asked Health Canada to do a health risk assessment before any more decisions are made. A source at BCCDC said that proper labelling may be all that is necessary to ensure the source of the eggs. I don't know the result of the health assessment, or if one was done. I do know that Salmonella has been of concern since cases in consumers have been increasing significantly since 2004, and traced to the sale of ungraded eggs to restaurants primarily from broiler breeder operations. It is not known how many undiagnosed and untraced cases of Salmonella have occurred. The BC Ministry of Agriculture and Lands (BCMAL) enforces the legislation concerning the sale of ungraded eggs off the farm site. The legislation pertaining to the sale of ungraded eggs is the “BC Agricultural Produce Grading Act” with the associated regulations, including the “Shell Egg Grading Regulations”.
Currently, according to provincial legislation and regulations, eggs can be sold legally to the consumer directly on the farm premises or on a farm stand, but not off the farm premises (e.g., farmers markets, etc). The consumer is a person who buys these eggs for their own personal consumption, and not for resale to the public (e.g., retailers, restaurants, farmers markets). The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is also involved, and is concerned about the selling of ungraded eggs in cartons that still bear the “Canada A” maple leaf symbol as there are legal and labelling implications. A consumer may not realize that the eggs are ungraded, if they are in a recycled carton from graded eggs. All producers should put their own label on, clearly indicating the name and contact number for the farm.
If we go back to 2004, how many people remember the ruckus at Salt Spring Farmers’ Market when VIHA came to confiscate the eggs being sold by the farmers there? A complete about face was made by VIHA because of a vocal food group that demanded local eggs be available to the public. The reason the BC Shell Egg Grading Regulation allows farm gate sales is because the consumer is completely aware they are buying farm eggs at that point. As long as the consumer buys from the farmer, there is complete traceability in case of a problem.
To add to all of the confusion, the provincial poultry specialist retired this year and it is not known when, or if, there will be a replacement. This is very bad timing on the part of the provincial government, especially with the increased interest in keeping chickens by people with no prior experience, concerns for flock and human health, and a need for support and education for all poultry producers.


  1. 2. Egg policy draws mixed reaction
    by Peter van Dongen

    A recent policy change by the Vancouver Island Health Authority on the sale of ungraded eggs is raising concern among British Columbia’s commercial egg industry, and appears to be at odds with Canadian Food Inspection Agency recommendations.

    Under the new policy, VIHA no longer differentiates between graded and ungraded eggs when it comes to sale in retail stores or use in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Previously, ungraded egg sales were only permitted at the farm gate.

    “We’re not telling people it’s OK to sell ungraded eggs, because maybe that’s in contravention of some other regulation,” Alan Kerr, VIHA regional environmental health consultant, told reporters. “What we’re telling them is the health department -- the health inspectors -- will not be making any distinction between graded and ungraded.”

    VIHA says the policy change reflects the agency’s commitment to increase public access to locally produced food. Indeed, many small-scale producers are calling the change a step in the right direction. But both the B.C. Egg Marketing Board and CFIA warn the move could expose consumers to undue food safety risks.

    “The whole point of egg grading is to avoid undue risk to the public,” says Grace Cho, BCEMB communications and marketing manager. She says the grading process differentiates eggs into grades and also ensures eggs are handled and packed in a sanitary environment at the correct temperature.

    Judy Scaife, chief of CFIA’s National Egg Program, agrees.

    “Consumers should be aware that ungraded eggs are not subject to government inspection and may not have been washed under controlled conditions or examined for internal defects,” Scaife says. “To reduce the risk, CFIA recommends purchasing eggs graded Canada A, and following safe food handling practices when preparing them.”

    Scaife says the new policy falls within VIHA’s jurisdiction under provincial authority, but notes British Columbia, like other provinces, requires only graded eggs be sold to retail stores, restaurants, and institutions such as schools and hospitals.

    “There is an expectation by the Canadian public that eggs sold or served at these locations are safe to consume and were graded at a federally registered grading station,” she says.

    Cho says provincial legislation under the Agricultural Produce Grading Act allows producers to sell eggs from their farm or residence, if the buyer is using the eggs for household personal consumption
    (From Farm Credit Corporation)

  2. As stated in CFIA's website

    At no time were the eggs tested for possible Salmonella contamination.

    Instead of regulating all eggs from small farms need to be graded at a grading station, a regulation to have all small farms use egg cartons that clearly label those eggs are ungraded and also bears the name, address would be sufficient.

  3. I agree with you on that,but even take it one step further,as restaurants and any food handling operation has health and safety codes to follow.Why couldn't the egg farmer have codes to follow,as long as they have proper cleaning and storage facilities, that could be monitored by the local health inspectors.
    I don't see a real problem with it anyways.I know more people that got sick from store bought inspected food then from the farm!

  4. I live in sarnia ontario. i have 6 laying hens, too many eggs, I'm wondering if I could sell form a my home in the city

  5. What is your understanding of the Shell Egg Grading Regulation in BC? I am wondering, if I am to sell my farm fresh "non-graded" eggs to customers (personal use only) and sometimes offer delivery does that still fall under the "direct to a consumer at the producer's farm or place of residence"?

    Thank you for your thoughts,